History of landseer
About 200 years ago these big, white and black dogs were spotted on the island Newfoundland by European fishermen. Because of their appealing appearance these giants were brought to England. The 'dogs of Newfoundland' were present on the
island in great numbers and helped the fishermen by towing nets out the water to the mainland. They also helped to bring people who threatened to drown, to safety.
It is believed that around 1770 these dogs have been exported to England in great numbers. However, these dogs were seen and reported much earlier. It is known that there is a painting of a boy, named Henry Sidney the later "Earl of Romney", with his white and black 'dog of Newfoundland'.
The first written reports of 'the dog of Newfoundland' are from 1732 by a "Person of Quality" in the book "The Gentlemen farrier". Thisis followed by "An History of the Earth and Animated Nature" dated 1774 written by Oliver Goldsmith. This is a very extensive and impressing description of 'the dog of Newfoundland'.
In 1778 the 'dog of Newfoundland' is first reported on our continent by E.A. Zimmerman. In 1790 Thomas Bewick's famous work follows: "A General History of Quadrupeds". His work contains a picture (drawing) of the dog.
From that moment until about 1880 there are at least 60 books known to us and a large number of paintings that include the large white and black dogs.
The most famous painting ever is "A Distinguished Member of Humane Society" painted by the famous animal painter Sir Edwin Landseer in 1838. Because Sir Edwin Landseer always painted these large white and black dogs these dogs where referred to as "Landseer-dogs". This explains how the Landseer got his name.
In England these dogs were crossed with the black Newfoundland regularly and it was soon a fact that there were more differences between these 2 dogs than just their colour. Gradually it became clear that the white and black dogs were much higher and more active than the black variety. One could clearly see the differences.
The first pure Landseer litter was probably born in Holland in 1893. However, these dogs were crossed with the black Newfoundland. The second Landseer litter was born in Switzerland in 1902 and this litter may be considered to be the revival of the Landseer on the European mainland. Altogether it took until 1960 before the Landseer E.C.T. was considered a separate breed. It is now protected under number 226 of the F.C.I.
Landseer-Newfoundlands have usually more black on their body and blacker heads. The name 'Landseer-Newfoundland' is mostly used to indicate the colour of the Newfoundland. This is not the same as Landseer E.C.T. Besides the colour, the characters are also different: a Landseer E.C.T. is much more active and remains active till his last day. The Newfoundland is usually somewhat calmer.
The Landseer should convey
the impression of a tall, powerful and well balanced dog. The legs are
comparatively longer than those of the black Newfoundland - especially
in the male. Movement of the well-muscled legs should present a free,
long stride, covering ground well.
Coat and Colour
The top coat - with
exception of the head - should be long and as straight and dense as
possible, soft to the touch, with good undercoat, which is not as dense
as in the black Newfoundland. Slightly wavy coat on back and
hindquarters is not objectionable. When brushed wrong way it falls back
into place naturally. Main colour of coat is a clear white with
distinct black patches on rump and croup. Collar, forechest, belly,
legs and tail must be white. Head black, with white muzzle and white
symmetrical blaze - neither too narrow, nor too wide - extending from
muzzle over head to the white collar, being considered a definite
breeding goal. Ticking still occurring in the white not to be
penalised, but should be bred away.
Head to be broad and massive
with a well developed occupied. Decided Stop, however not as pronounced
and steep as in the St. Bernard. Length of muzzle is equal to depth of
muzzle, measured in front of he Stop. Lips clean, the upper slightly
overlapping the lower, they should be as tight as possible, no
drivelling. Head to be strikingly modelled noble expression. Cheeks
moderately developed, gradually tapering into the muzzle. Nose and lips
black. Scalp should be free from wrinkles, covered with short, fine
size. Reaching inner corner of eyes, when drawn out. Triangular
shape, with slightly rounded tips. Set high on head, however not too
far back. Carried close and flat to sides of head. Ears covered with short, fine hair.
Fringes of longer hair to be found only at back part of root of ear.
size. Moderately deep set, brown to darkbrown, lightbrown to be
tolerated, friendly expression, almond shaped, showing no haw.
Pronouncedly light eyes (sulphur or greyish yellow) are faulty, as well
as eyes set too close together.
The Neck - muscular and broad - should not be quite round but rather eggshaped in cross-section, symmetrical set and obliquely placed in shoulders. Length of Neck from occiput to withers to be approximately 3/4 to 4/5 the length from occiput to tip of nose. Pronounced dewlap undesirable.
The body measured from
withers to set on of tail should be about twice the length of the head.
The back should be straight and level, wide and strong from withers to
croup. Very muscular shoulders, the chest to be deep and broad
corresponding to well sprung ribs. Belly slightly tucked up. Clearly
visible flat depression between belly and muscular loin. Croup broad,
we rounded at sides and rear by powerful bolster of muscles. Faults:
weak or hollow backs, weak loins, too short last false ribs, resulting
into too much tuck-up.
Strong muscles descending
from shoulders, to surround a well-boned humerus, connected in correct
angulation to the massive bones of the front legs; these are absolutely
straight and muscular. Elbows close to body at lowest point of brisket.
Distance from ground to elbows rather high, elbows pointed straight to
the rear. Legs slightly fringed down to pasterns.
All of hindquarters to be
very sturdy. Hindlegs to move freely, they should have strong bone
embedded by powerful muscles to be broad across thigs. Hindlegs to be
moderately fringed. Cowhocks or insufficient angulation are faulty.
Dewclaws are objectionable, they should be removed as soon as possible
Large, well shaped cat-feet
. Splayed or turned out feet are objectionable. Toes connected by
webbing, which should be strong, almost reaching tip of toes.
reaching slightly below hocks at the most, well covered with dense,
bushy hair, however not flaglike. Tail should hang downwards, when
standing or at ease, with a slight curve at end permissible. May carry
tail straight out, with only a slight curve at end, when moving. Tails
with a kink or curled
over back are most objectionable.
Dogs: 72 to 80 cm (28,5 to 3l,5 inches)
Bitches: 67 to 72 cm (26,5 to 28,5 inches)
Small deviations below or above to be tolerated.